Classification of Laser Welding Processes

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- GoPhotonics

Nov 14, 2023

Way 1: Classification of laser welding processes based on their application or specific technique

The two primary classifications within laser welding are:

  • Laser Spot Welding
  • Laser Seam Welding

Way 2: Classification of welding processes based on need and type of filler material

The laser welding techniques can be categorized into two main types: 

  • Autogenous Laser Welding
  • Nonautogenous Laser Welding

Way 3: Different modes or methods of laser welding are:

There are two heating modes used to describe the melting of metals in laser welding: "conduction mode" and "keyhole mode". These modes are created by different power densities of the beam striking the workpiece and lead to varying results. Power density is determined by dividing the laser beam power by the area of the focused laser spot.

  • Conduction Mode Welding
  • Keyhole Welding
  • Conduction/Penetration Mode Welding

Way 4: Classification of welding processes based on utilization of automated system

Other Laser Welding Techniques

  • Laser Brazing: Laser brazing involves simultaneously using a laser beam to heat the workpiece along with filler material such as copper or silver, creating a firm bond between materials. It is ideal for joining dissimilar metals. Low-temperature brazing reduces distortion (changes in shape and size of the workpiece), making it valuable in industries like automotive for steel-aluminum joints.
  • Hybrid Welding: This method combines laser beam welding with other techniques like GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding) and GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding), enhancing welding quality and efficiency by leveraging the benefits of both methods.
  • Heat Conduction Welding: Using a low-power laser below 500W, this technique heats the material surface beyond its melting point, creating aesthetically pleasing, regular welds. While it may not provide extremely high weld strength, it's perfect for applications where exceptional strength isn't the primary requirement.
  • Percussion Welding: In percussion welding, the laser beam is pulsed at a high frequency, swiftly melting and fusing the materials. This approach is versatile, accommodating materials with varying melting points and thermal properties, making it ideal for joining dissimilar materials like aluminum and steel.

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