Proton-beam Facilities for Biological, Materials, and Technology Research

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Protons dominate the particle radiation environment in interplanetary space, being the most abundant particles in both Solar and Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) radiation. The GCR proton spectrum has a broad peak from 200 to 500 MeV [Changran, et al. 2015], while Solar Proton Event (SPE) emissions have a spectrum that drops off more sharply above about 100-200 MeV [Xapsos, et al. 2000]. Humans, plants, materials, coatings, assemblies, instruments, and electronics are all susceptible to this radiation making research into the impact of proton radiation critical for enabling long-term exploration of space and allowing humanity to become a multi-planet species [National Academies, 2021].