Thermal lensing analysis of TGG and its effect on beam quality

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In this paper, we address the thermal lensing in edge-air-cooled IGG rod crystals and obtain thermal focal length in the crystal. In addition, we studied the degradation of a Gaussian beam passing through TGG crystals with fifth order thermal lens aberration due to thermal effects on the crystal. We derive an analytical formulation for the beam degradation based on the beam quality factor. "M-squared" method, the most mathematically rigorous and accepted method to characterize an arbitrary laser beam. [10-13]